Nephrology diseases, which affect the kidneys and associated structures, can have significant impacts on individuals suffering from them. Addressing precautions for nephrology diseases requires a multidisciplinary approach involving healthcare professionals, patients, caregivers, and support networks. Early detection, timely intervention, lifestyle modifications, adherence to treatment regimens, and ongoing monitoring are essential for optimizing outcomes and improving the quality of life for individuals affected by these conditions.

Nephron Diseases

  1. Glomerulonephritis:
    • Cause: Inflammation of the glomeruli, often due to autoimmune disorders, infections (such as streptococcal infection), or systemic diseases.
    • ICD-10-CM Code: N05.9 (Unspecified nephritic syndrome)
  2. Acute Tubular Necrosis (ATN):
    • Cause: Ischemic injury, sepsis, nephrotoxic drugs (e.g., certain antibiotics, contrast agents), or severe dehydration.
    • ICD-10-CM Code: N17.0 (Acute kidney failure with tubular necrosis)
  3. Chronic Tubulointerstitial Nephritis:
    • Cause: Chronic inflammation and scarring of the tubules and interstitium, often due to autoimmune diseases (e.g., lupus), chronic infections, or exposure to nephrotoxic agents.
    • ICD-10-CM Code: N16.9 (Renal tubulo-interstitial disease, unspecified)
  4. Nephrotic Syndrome:
    • Cause: Various underlying conditions such as glomerulonephritis, diabetes, lupus, or certain medications.
    • ICD-10-CM Code: N04.9 (Nephrotic syndrome with unspecified morphologic changes)
  5. Renal Tubular Acidosis (RTA):
    • Cause: Impaired acid-base balance due to defects in tubular acidification mechanisms, often idiopathic or associated with autoimmune diseases, genetic disorders, or certain medications.
    • ICD-10-CM Code: N25.89 (Other disorders resulting from impaired renal tubular function)
  6. Renal Papillary Necrosis:
    • Cause: Ischemia, infection (especially in the setting of urinary tract obstruction or diabetes), analgesic abuse (particularly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), or sickle cell disease.
    • ICD-10-CM Code: N20.2 (Calculus of kidney with calculus of ureter)
  7. Fanconi Syndrome:
    • Cause: Inherited genetic disorders, exposure to toxins or heavy metals, certain medications (e.g., antiretroviral drugs), or associated with other conditions like multiple myeloma.
    • ICD-10-CM Code: E72.01 (Disorders of amino-acid transport, unspecified)
  8. Alport Syndrome:
    • Cause: Genetic mutation affecting collagen IV in the glomerular basement membrane, leading to progressive renal impairment, hearing loss, and ocular abnormalities.
    • ICD-10-CM Code: Q87.8 (Other specified congenital malformation syndromes affecting multiple systems)

General Medication for Nephron-Diseases:

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors:

  • Medication Examples: Lisinopril (Zestril), Enalapril (Vasotec), Ramipril (Altace)
  • ICD-10-CM Code: I12.9 (Hypertensive chronic kidney disease with stage 1 through stage 4 chronic kidney disease, or unspecified chronic kidney disease)

Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs):

  • Medication Examples: Losartan (Cozaar), Irbesartan (Avapro), Valsartan (Diovan)
  • ICD-10-CM Code: I12.9 (Hypertensive chronic kidney disease with stage 1 through stage 4 chronic kidney disease, or unspecified chronic kidney disease)


  • Medication Examples: Furosemide (Lasix), Hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide), Spironolactone (Aldactone)
  • ICD-10-CM Code: N17.9 (Acute kidney failure, unspecified) or N18.9 (chronic kidney disease, unspecified) depending on the indication

Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs):

  • Medication Examples: Epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit), Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp)
  • ICD-10-CM Code: D63.1 (Anemia in chronic kidney disease)

Phosphate Binders:

  • Medication Examples: Calcium acetate (PhosLo), Sevelamer (Renagel, Renvela)
  • ICD-10-CM Code: N18.9 (chronic kidney disease, unspecified)


  • Medication Examples: Atorvastatin (Lipitor), Rosuvastatin (Crestor), Simvastatin (Zocor)
  • ICD-10-CM Code: E78.0 (Pure hypercholesterolemia)


  • Medication Examples: Prednisone, Prednisolone, Methylprednisolone
  • ICD-10-CM Code: N04.9 (Nephrotic syndrome with unspecified morphologic changes) or N05.9 (Unspecified nephritic syndrome) depending on the indication

Immunosuppressive Agents:

  • Medication Examples: Cyclophosphamide, Mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept), Tacrolimus (Prograf)
  • ICD-10-CM Code: N05.9 (Unspecified nephritic syndrome) or N04.9 (Nephrotic syndrome with unspecified morphologic changes) depending on the indication

General Precautions

  1. Regular Monitoring: Schedule regular check-ups with a nephrologist to monitor kidney function through blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies.
  2. Healthy Lifestyle: Maintain a balanced diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. Limit salt, sugar, and processed foods. Exercise regularly, avoid smoking, and limit alcohol consumption.
  3. Medication Management: Take medications as prescribed by healthcare professionals, and avoid over-the-counter medications that may be harmful to the kidneys without consulting a doctor.
  4. Blood Pressure and Blood Sugar Control: Manage hypertension and diabetes effectively through medication, lifestyle modifications, and regular monitoring.
  5. Stay Hydrated: Drink an adequate amount of water daily to help maintain kidney function and prevent dehydration.
  6. Avoid Nephrotoxic Substances: Minimize exposure to substances that can harm the kidneys, including certain medications, environmental toxins, and illicit drugs.
  7. Manage Underlying Conditions: Treat and manage underlying conditions such as autoimmune diseases, infections, and genetic disorders promptly to prevent kidney damage.
  8. Limit Protein Intake: In certain kidney conditions, reducing protein intake may help alleviate strain on the kidneys. Consult with a healthcare professional or dietitian for personalized dietary recommendations.
  9. Maintain a Healthy Weight: Obesity can contribute to the development and progression of kidney disease. Maintain a healthy weight through diet and exercise to reduce the risk.
  10. Practice Good Hygiene: Prevent urinary tract infections by practicing good hygiene habits, such as wiping from front to back, staying hydrated, and urinating regularly.


In essance , nephrons fundamental units of kidney function, are vital for maintaining overall health. Adhering to these preventive measures and taking a proactive approach to nephron health can mitigate the risk of complications, fostering a healthier life. Timely detection and intervention are pivotal in effectively managing nephron diseases.

We specialize in Medical Billing and Coding and provide comprehensive support for your practice. For more information visit

For more details on billing softwares, visit